motivational psychology

need brief paragraph or 2 to be responses to the following 2 discussion posts

1 or 2 scholarly sources for each response

post 1:

Motivation and Culture

According to Chiu and Chow (2010), individuals’ attitudes, priorities, and behaviors can be shaped by the society’s cultural values, which are the objects, conditions or characteristics deemed to be important in the individual’s society. Also noted by Chiu and Chow (2010), “culture, in the form of cultural values or cultural capital, might be linked to student motivation or achievement” (p. 579). Chiu and Chow (2010), argue that although several international studies have examined and linked adult cultural values and behaviors, few studies have been conducted to examine the link between cultural values and adolescent behaviors. In a study, Chiu and Chow (2010) assumed that adolescent academic motivation and achievement might differ across cultures, stating that:

Everyday exposure to a country’s customs and practices informally socializes adolescents to a country’s cultural values. Adolescents who acquire these societal values also acquire beliefs and behaviors which in turn might affect their motivation and achievement. In addition, adolescent exposure to art and cultural activities at home provides cultural knowledge, skills, education, and advantages—namely, cultural capital—that can help them succeed in the educational system. (Chiu & Chow, 2010, p. 579)

Individuals can have different construals of others and themselves, including the interdependence of both, which is dependent on the person’s culture (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

According to Slavin (2003), Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory relied on social interactions and predictable stages of growth to explain development; suggesting that learning precedes development. Sociocultural theory has two key ideas: (1) intellectual development is only understood in terms of historical and cultural contexts that children experience, and (2) development relies on sign systems—symbols created by cultures to help individuals think, communicate, and solve problems—that people grow up with (p. 43). Proposing that social and cultural structures and relationships will lead to mental functions developing, Vygotsky argues that a person’s social experiences (how individuals motivate and guide attention, model, and respond to behavior, control body movements, and organize spatial relationships) and cultural artifacts (signs, symbols, linguistic terms, objects, and instruments) will create and shape psychological phenomena and serve as mediators for learning within a continually changing environment (Slavin, 2003).

According to Bandura, the development of behavior is the result of individuals observing the behavior of others. According to social cognitive theory, by imitating and observing others (models) people learn socially acceptable behavior (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2006). Bandura states that by imitating models, children learn to deal with aggression, learn gender appropriate behavior, and language (Papalia et al., 2006). Argued by Bandura (1989), research has shown that patterns of behavior can be eliminated, reinstated and induced by changing external sources (p. 2). Social cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes and how individuals perceive themselves and others. Environmental influences have a significant role in the activation, development of behavior (Bandura, 1989). According to Bandura (1989), based on the bi-directionality of influence between environmental circumstances and behavior, individuals are both producers and products of their environment (p. 4).


Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. Annals of child development: Six theory of child development, 6, 1-60.

Chiu, M. M., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2010). Culture, motivation, and reading achievement: High school students in 41 countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 579-592. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2010.03.007

Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2006). A child’s world: Infancy through adolescence. (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Slavin, R. E. (2003). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


Motivational theories attempt to explain human behavior. In these circumstances, these methods concentrate on three aspects of behavior: the choice to try reaching a goal, persistence, and effort (Dörnyei, 2000). Everyone has goals they want to achieve; some may seem small while others significant, depending on a person’s needs or wants and the value placed upon them. Not only would these differ from person to person, but also across cultures.

It is believed that a person’s culture, can be identified by traits, ideas, perceptions, habits, etc. (Dimitrov, 2006). Within cultures people interact in a particular way, have different beliefs, differing behaviors; these characteristics may lead one to approach goals in different ways. All cultures train their young to be able to support themselves when they become old but have differing views on how to accomplish this. All people have a drive that compels them to mate with others, but there are different views on acceptable sexual behavior that a culture’s beliefs imply.

Some cultures place great importance on farming; it is a way of life. In these cultures, parents have the goal of teaching their children the knowledge they need to operate a farm properly, and children have the goal of learning this knowledge being shown to them to ensure their future well being as well as the future of how they live. Neighboring cultures may instead apply a more formal type of education that includes some manner of higher education. While formal education plays a vital role in this culture, it does not in a farming culture, causing children not to be as motivated to attain much formal education.

Religion is considered part of a culture, holding a significant influence over the lives of people who practice, acting as a moral code, guiding beliefs and how life is lived (“UNESCO,” 2018). Religions, while being similar to necessary moral codes of day to day living, encourage views on how people should live their lives. Religious beliefs greatly influence sexual behaviors. There is a correlation between religion and the stance on premarital sex; with increased interest/belief in religion comes a decreased likelihood of premarital sex as well as reduced number of partners over a lifetime (Longest, & Uecker, n.d.). When people who hold strong religious beliefs socialize or ‘date,’ their goal is more than sex. Given that motivational theories attempt to explain human behavior, and culture dramatically influences human behavior, then a direct relationship between motivational theories and culture exists. However, motivational theories may not extend across all cultures.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains motivation through five basic needs which are attained and listed in order of importance: physiological, safety (security), love (belonging), esteem, and self-actualization (Maslow, 1943). Individualistic cultures, which emphasize self, would agree with Maslow’s assessment with self-actualization being the most important (Dimitrov, 2006). However, collectivistic cultures which highlight the support of groups or clans do not view self-actualization as crucial as love/belonging (Dimitrov, 2006).

McClelland’s trichotomy of needs focuses on three requirements: power, achievement, and affiliation (Harrell, & Stahl, 1981). These needs are seen as universal, across all cultures (Dimitrov, 2006). However, how these needs present themselves is reliant upon the culture being referred to (Dimitrov, 2006). McClelland believed that these three factors are the cause of all human behavior, only cultures placed their value on each (Mohn, 2017).


Dimitrov, D. (2006). Cultural differences in motivation for organizational learning and training. International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities & Nations, 5(4), 37-48.

Dörnyei, Z. (2000). Motivation theories. In, Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching & Learning (pp. 432–435). Taylor & Francis Ltd / Books.

Harrell, A. M., & Stahl, M. J., (1981). A Behavioral Decision Theory Approach for Measuring McClelland’s Trichotomy of Needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(2), 242–247. Retrieved from

Longest, K. C., & Uecker, J. E. (n.d.). Moral Communities and Sex: The Religious Influence on Young Adult Sexual Behavior and Regret. Sociological Perspectives, 61(3), 361–382.…

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.

Mohn, E. (2017). David McClelland. Salem Press Biographical Encyclopedia. Retrieved from…

UNESCO. (2018). Retrieved from


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