Please write a paragraph responding to the discussion bellow. Add citations and references in alphabetical order.
Grounded theory and phenomenology are the most common approaches to qualitative research used by nurses. Although there are differences between the two, they have much in common. Both take an interpretative approach in which the researcher seeks to explore real-life situations, and require a high degree of interaction between the researcher and the individual, groups or situations being examined; this usually takes the form of interviews and/or observations. Both grounded theorists and phenomenologists seek to collect and analyze data from participants’ perspectives and try to ensure their findings are not influenced by inflexible ideas. To achieve this they often involve participants in data analysis to increase the reliability of the findings. In brief, grounded theorists and phenomenologists both seek to explore individuals’ experiences in the context of the world in which they live. Because both approaches have so much in common it can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between them.
Phenomenology describes and explores experiences, which can only be done by collecting data from individuals who have lived through those experiences. Hence phenomenologists often refer to the “lived experience” and data is often limited to interviews, while findings are reported as a rich description of the experience drawing on characteristics identified during data analysis.
Grounded theory is a qualitative methodological approach in which the aim was to generate a “grounded theory” to describe and explain the phenomenon under study. Unlike phenomenologists, grounded theorists seek to include all data sources that might contribute to theory development. Interviews are commonly used but they might also include observations, diaries, images, past literature and research. Using a technique described as ‘constant comparison’, they compare all the data collected with all other data look for contradictory cases, which might challenge the emerging theory but will eventually strengthen it. This complex process of theoretical sampling, data collection and analysis can be extremely challenging.
Both grounded theorists and phenomenologists seek to understand peoples’ lives. Sticking to a single approach usually gives researchers the tools to undertake their research. There are differences but this does not mean that one approach is right and one is wrong. Grounded theory and phenomenology are research tools and one will not be suited to all jobs.